Audit Bureau of Circulations audits magazines and newspapers across North America.
Bureau of Broadcast Measurement measures television and radio audiences. For television, it uses a combination of household diaries and electronic People Meters.
Census Agglomeration – is a large urban area together with the adjacent urban and rural fringes with an urban core population of at least 10,000 people. However, if the urban core population declines below 10,000 from one census to another, the CA is retired. Like CMAs, CAs are divided into Census Tracts.
There are 112 CAs in Canada (fewer than in the 1991 Census), over half of which are in Ontario and Quebec. British Columbia has the next highest number with 21 CAs.
Canadian Advertising Rates and Data (US counterpart is SRDS) is generally recognized by the directory it publishes each month, a listing of all media in Canada. The directory gives key facts about each medium, including rates, circulations, contact names and addresses as well as mechanical specifications, etc.
The Canadian Advertising Research Foundation (and its US counterpart the Advertising Research Foundation) are known for evaluating the technical soundness of research studies either already or about to be conducted. Particularly important for new, unproven methodologies, a CARF approval can be similar to the Good Housekeeping Seal of approval for a new study. In the US, ARF is primarily concerned with exploring, documenting and evaluating new research methodologies.
Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing – firms who do large volumes of telephone studies generally employ CATI. The questionnaire is programmed into a central computer and shows up on the screen when the interviewer dials a telephone number. The interviewer merely enters the respondents’ replies directly onto the computer as they are given.
CATI offers many benefits including:
· Reduction of input errors. Since the interviewer isn’t writing things down as a respondent replies, errors are reduced and more verbatim information is recorded.
· Speed – the interviewer doesn’t have to worry about asking the correct next question. The ‘skips’ are pre-programmed. That is, if each response should take the respondent to a different place in the questionnaire, the computer automatically knows this and skips to the right place for each respondent.
· Complexity – in a study such as ComBase many factors must be preprogrammed into the computer. Things such as the correct geography (postal codes must be programmed), the right list of newspapers, the appropriate next question if someone says he doesn’t read X newspapers are all controlled by the computer. This would be extremely difficult to do manually.
· Processing – CATI allows for almost instantaneous data processing for next-day analysis. The Project Manager will have access to readership levels, response rates, bias and other information in time to react to it.
A Canadian audit organization for print.
Census Metropolitan Area – a Statistics Canada term for a very large urban area (known as urban core) together with adjacent urban and rural areas (known as urban and rural fringes) that have a high degree of social and economic integration with the urban core. A CMA has an urban core population of at least 100,000. Once an area becomes a CMA, it is retained as a CMA even if the population of its urban core declines below 100,000. All CMAs are divided into Census Tracts (see below).
There are only 25 CMAs in Canada, primarily in Ontario and Quebec (16).
Canadian Media Directors’ Council is an association advertising agency media professionals with chapters in many provinces. They meet to tackle issues relating to the purchase of media including measurement.
The Canadian Outdoor Measurement Bureau is the organization that measures audiences for billboards and other outdoor advertising vehicles.
Cost Per Thousand refers to the cost of reaching each thousand audience members. Planners will attempt to purchase the lowest CPMs with their buys and look for efficiencies using the Reach/Frequency computer run above, which also gives them CPMs when costs per ad are added. Costs are only for the media purchased, not production costs.
Census Subdivisions (5,984 in Canada) – are municipalities or their equivalent (e.g. Indian reserves, unorganized territories). In Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and British Columbia, the term also describes geographic areas that have been created by Statscan in cooperation with the provinces as equivalents for municipalities for the dissemination of statistical data.
Within CSDs Statscan defines 43 sub-areas to help social planners. These include Boroughs, Cities, Villages, Counties, Municipalities etc. For a full list, see page 195 of Stat scan’s 1996 Census Dictionary.
Census Tracts (4,223 in Canada) – are small geographic units representing urban or rural neighbourhood-like communities created in CMAs and CAs with an urban core population of 50,000 or more at the previous census. CTs are usually delineated by a committee of local specialists (e.g. planners, health and social workers, educators) in conjunction with Statistics Canada. The average population of CT is between 2,500 and 8,000 with an average of 4,000. In order to maintain comparability of data across censuses, the rules applying to the definition of CTs are strict:
· Boundaries must follow permanent and easily recognizable physical features
· Should be as homogeneous as possible in terms of socio-economic characteristics
· CT shape should be as compact as possible
Enumeration Area (49,361 in Canada) – is defined by Statistics Canada as the geographic area canvassed by one census representative. It is the smallest standard geographic area for which census data (such as population projections) are reported. All the territory of Canada is covered by EAs.
Like the CT, EA definitions are rigid to allow for comparability of data. The number of dwellings in an EA generally varies between a maximum of 440 in large urban areas to a minimum of 125 in rural areas.
Statistics Canada also provides definitions and rules for areas such Primary Census Areas which may apply to ComBase markets.
ER – Economic Regions
Economic regions are defined by Statscan on page 205 of the Statistics Canada Census Dictionary, 1996 as “a grouping of census divisions. Economic regions are used to analyse regional economic activity.
Within Quebec, ERs are designated by law. In all provinces, economic regions are created by
agreement between Statscan and the provinces concerned.”
There are 74 in all of Canada, with 8 in BC. You will notice they look a lot like the
weather regions used by television stations.
They are just convenient ways of grouping areas together that have ecomonic
factors in common such as labour behaviour — shop/work in one area, live in another, go to school in one area, live in another, etc. or, in Quebec, political factors.
They are useful when comparing a group of newspapers to a regional radio or tv buy.
Flyer Distributions Standards Association is an advertiser-driven organization founded in 2000. Its mandate is to develop standards and protocols for effective distribution of flyers in Canada. It examines distribution all the way from packaging to household audits.
Forward Sortation Area – this is a Canada Post term for the first three letters of the Postal Code. It is used to send mail to a central sorting station. There are 1,477 FSAs in Canada.
Free Standing Insert – refers to advertising printed outside and inserted into the newspaper. FSIs may be a single page or the size of catalogues. They may be inserted mechanically or by hand.
Local Delivery Unit – the last three digits of a Postal Code indicates a very precise location such as one side of a street. There are 680,910 Postal Codes in Canada (six-digit).
The Newspaper Audience Databank is the organization that measures daily newspaper readership.
A company that provides audience research for the broadcast industry, using primarily People Meters.
The Print Measurement Bureau measures audiences for magazines and has the most extensive product and consumer behaviour database as well. It is the most widely used media database among advertising agencies.
Good market research is built on the theory that if the respondents are selected at random, that is, everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected, and high response rates are achieved, the results will accurately reflect the population’s characteristics without having to interview everyone in that population.
Since we cannot afford to interview everyone in a market, we project the people we do interview to represent the whole population. Statistics Canada tells us how many men, women, young, older people we should have and we project up to those proportions. That allows us to talk about the market as a whole.
The poorer the response rates and the less rigid the controls around sampling, the less accurate will our projections be.
Rating Points/Points/Gross Rating Points
Used primarily in broadcast, a rating point is another way of expressing Reach. Each percent of the population reached by a certain program counts as one rating point. For example, if Seinfeld has a rating of 10 points, that means that it reaches 10% of the population (likely 18+). When purchasing television, planners need to buy several programs to achieve their reach minimums. Adding the Rating Points for various shows gives them a Gross Rating Points total.
The sum is described as Gross because there will be duplication in the audience – people will have watched more than one show.
Costs may be expressed as Cost per Point or CPP.
Refers to a common computer calculation that shows the number and/or percent of people in the population exposed to the message (Reach) and the average number of times each person has been exposed (Frequency). Reach can be expressed as both a percentage and a number. Media planners will speak of a certain campaign of media achieving a reach of X% with a certain level of frequency. Depending on the goal of the campaign, plans general require minimum levels of reach (normally between 50-60%) with minimum levels of frequency (usually 3 or more). The data is calculated by software packages that manipulate audience data collected by the major media.
Refers to the selected person in the household who will answer the questionnaire.
Calculated from the universe (adults 18+ in the selected markets, filtered by the Postal Code) as a percentage. A 40% minimum response rate is required for ComBase markets. Response rates are the single most important factor in ensuring that a study provides representative data of the marketplace. Low response rates usually signal biases. If only 30% of people selected actually responded, it begs the question about how different that 30% might be from the general population. In practice the easiest to reach respondent is the older woman living alone.
Run of Press – refers to advertisements and editorial appearing on the printed pages of a newspaper.
Retail Trading Zone is used to describe a medium’s area of influence in terms of the audience it serves.
Sample or Sample Size
Refers to the number of respondents we interview in any market. Sample Sizes have margins of error attached to them. The smaller the sample size, the larger the margin of error associated with it. ComBase specifies a minimum of 75 sample size for any cell of analysis.
Verified Circulation is the CCNA’s audited circulation program for community newspapers in Canada. Used for both VCC (controlled) and VCP (paid) publications.